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A California company is nearing completion of a manufacturing plant that soon will be turning out medium-density fiberboard (MDF) made from rice straw instead of wood fiber. CalPlant 1 is building the $315 million facility on 276 acres of land in Willows, California, some 85 miles north of Sacramento, in an important rice-growing region. When complete, the company says, the plant will produce the equivalent of 140 million square feet of 3/4-inch MDF per year. MDF, almost all of which is currently made with waste wood fiber, is widely used in cabinets, doors, and floor substrates. CalPlant 1 said its panels will have no added formaldehyde and will have the same performance characteristics as wood-based MDF.RELATED ARTICLESCabinet Manufacturers Group Supports Federal Formaldehyde LegislationGreen Building Priority #3 – Ensure a Healthy Indoor EnvironmentMineral Wool Makers Dropping Formaldehyde Binders According to the company, the process has several environmental benefits, including the use of 300,000 tons of rice straw per year—about 20% of the rice straw produced in the Sacramento Valley. All of the feedstock for production will come from rice growers no more than 25 miles from the plant. After California banned the practice of burning waste rice straw in 1991, some farmers began flooding fields with water after harvest to accelerate the decay of the waste straw. The use of rice straw to manufacture MDF would give farmers another option for disposal. Output from the plant will be enough to meet 30% of the California MDF market, according to a company news release. In addition to medium-density board, CalPlant 1 will produce panels in a range of densities and in thicknesses up to 30 mm (1.18 inches). Plywood manufacturer Columbia Forest Products, an early investor in the project, will market the panels. The plant is being constructed on land owned by the family of Jim Boyd, a rice farmer who originally approached Jerry Uhland, now the president of CalPlant, with the idea in the 1990s, Architect Magazine said in an article about the company. Boyd died in 2009 but his daughter Suzy is active in the company. The panels will use pMDI as a binder, helping the MDF comply with federal regulations designed to limit formaldehyde emissions. CalPlant vice president Elizabeth Whalen told Architect the company hoped to move to a more naturally derived adhesive in the future, such as the soy-based resin used in some of Columbia’s panel products. The panels are expected to be ready for sale in the first quarter of next year. They will be distributed through Columbia Forest Products and also sold directly to manufacturers that use a lot of MDF, such as millwork, cabinet, and flooring producers, Whelan said in an email to GBA. The MDF will be available across North America, she said, adding, “but logistically speaking, the freight costs, especially on thicker material, will be a factor for some buyers.” A full-scale launch of the product—including a brand name—will take place in the first quarter of next year. The MDF will be “priced competitively” with wood-based panels now on the market. The company’s focus is on California at the moment, Whelan added, but that could change in the future. “Rice is grown in other regions of the U.S. and globally,” she said, “making rice straw as a raw material an abundant and annually renewable resource, so ultimately we’d like to expand this technology to other regions.” Non-wood MDF is uncommon MDF is typically made with waste sawdust and shavings derived from lumber production, says Jackson Morrill, president of the Composite Panel Association, a trade group. Efforts to use alternatives, such as wheat and rice straw, have proved largely unsuccessful in the past. Dow BioProducts, for example, abandoned efforts to make fiberboard panels with wheat straw and a polyurethane binder in 2005 because it cost too much to produce. One non-wood MDF on the market is Wheatboard, which is made of wheat straw and a non-formaldehyde binder called MDI. It’s available through Chesapeake Plywood, a distributor in Baltimore, where a 4×8 sheet of 3/4-inch material costs $65.20 ($43.47 per unit when bought in a unit of 50 sheets). Early attempts at making MDF with agricultural waste straw failed for a number of reasons, Morrill said, but the new plant in California is “progressing nicely” and represents a 20-plus-year effort by its founders to bring the idea to fruition. A key selling point for the rice-straw MDF is the use of a resin that contains no formaldehyde, a chemical listed as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although most MDF is manufactured with urea-formaldehyde binders, Morrill said in a telephone call that those panels are still able to meet emissions limits established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board. MDF made with no-added-formaldehyde resins is available, Morrill said, but it’s not common. Producers have stuck with urea-formaldehyde for a number of reasons, including cost and production issues that can crop up with resin substitutes. Morrill called CalPlant a “win-win-win” because it will help to solve what had been a environmental headache for California rice growers. The manufacturing process also could represent an important tool for combating air pollution elsewhere. In India, for example, rice straw is consumed in huge fires that blacken the sky. Capturing the rice straw in a product with a potentially long life also would appear to offer some of the same carbon-capture advantages that wood products have. Morrill, however, said he didn’t know how carbon sequestration between the two materials compared. Water use and methane issues CalPlant lists reduced water use as an environmental advantage of its manufacturing process—fewer fields would have to be flooded after harvest—but the state’s Department of Water Resources also sees some advantages to the practice. Peter Bostrom, chief of the department’s water use and efficiency branch, said farmers typically flood fields with 3 to 4 inches of water after harvest. He said he didn’t have an estimate of exactly how much water is used annually for that purpose, but said a “significant number” of acres across the Sacramento Valley are flooded each year. Is that an environmental problem? Not necessarily. The artificial flooding creates habitat for migrating birds, could help fish in the region’s rivers by providing places where insects can breed, and helps flush salts from the soil. Flooding takes place in fall and winter, which is not prime irrigation season, and the water can help recharge underground supplies. “The actual water cost is probably minimal,” he said. “The Sacramento Valley has traditionally been a floodplain through history, so often these areas would have been flooded anyway in the winter. In some cases, the flooding of these fields can occur from winter rain alone.” Bostrom, a former rice farmer himself, said rice straw can be used as bedding for animals and for soil retention at construction sites. It also can be chopped up and turned into the soil, although that practice can lead to rice stem disease if rice is planted in the same ground the following year and crops are not rotated. Flooding does not allow the disease spores to build up, so it’s been “relatively effective” in that way as an alternative to burning. CalPlant will give farmers another option for disposing of the straw. “What’s being proposed fits into the state’s and the department’s perspective of trying to promote a variety of ways to improve water use and environmental concerns across the valley across multiple fronts,” he said. “You can’t flood the entire valley in the winter, so this provides another option for using rice straw.” Rice cultivation also has an impact on methane emissions. According to the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the flooding that’s an integral part of rice cultivation makes rice paddies a source of methane through a process called methanogenesis. The more than 540,000 acres of rice paddies in the state account for 2% of statewide emissions, contributing an average of 797,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year between 2000 and 2017. CARB didn’t break down the emissions that could be attributed specifically to post-harvest flooding, so it’s not clear how operations like CalPlant might change the emissions picture. Methane emissions from rice fields are a problem, CARB spokesman Dave Clegern said, but “their contribution pales when compared to methane emissions from dairies and other livestock facilities.” Those operations account for more than half the annual methane emissions in the state. Still, CARB has developed a carbon offset protocol for rice farmers, which describes the most effective means for reducing the release of methane. -Scott Gibson is a contributing writer at Green Building Advisor and Fine Homebuilding magazine.
Even as an emotional Sachin Tendulkar gets set to play his last World Cup match in front of his home crowd at the Wankhede Stadium on Saturday, captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni feels that expectations are nothing new to the batting maestro and the champion batsman won’t get overawed by the situation.Speaking on the eve of the match, Dhoni said that handling the pressure of expectations is what Tendulkar has been doing successfully over the last 21 years and playing the final of the showpiece event at his home ground wouldn’t be something out of the blues for the little master.”When god made Tendulkar, he made him just to play cricket. From the very first ball he ever faced on the international scene, he has looked at giving his 100 per cent. Players have come and players have gone, but Tendulkar has just grown from strength to strength.”It might be a big occasion for every player out in the middle, but if anything, Tendulkar will use the pressure to his advantage. Irrespective of whether he gets the coveted 100 international centuries or not, he has achieved what not many cricketers can dream of. He doesn’t need to prove anything to anyone,” he said.Talking of what sets apart the little genius from the other stars to have played the game, Dhoni said: “It definitely has to be his level of dedication towards the game and the intensity with which he has played for the last 21 years. While cricketers have come and gone, he has held fort.advertisement”Even today, he is takes every training session seriously. He would much rather not turn up for training rather than joking around once on the ground. He is not a player to turn up for training just for the sake of it. He has an intent every single time he is on the ground.”Dhoni also feels that it is the master blaster’s knack to get every minute detail in place ahead of a match that sets him apart from the rest.”He comes into the ground and if there is any area which he feels needs to be worked upon, he will work on it and unless he is satisfied with the result, he won’t leave the ground. He doesn’t leave anything for tomorrow.”(On a lighter note) We are blessed that he is a genius and the two or three hour training sessions that we have are enough for him to correct his mistakes, else we might have been stranded on the ground forever,” Dhoni said.
Saina Nehwal may be India’s brightest medal prospects in badminton, but she will have to breach the Chinese wall to lay her hands on Olympic gold. With her recent victories in the Thailand Open and Indonesia Open Super Series she has made a strong statement. The three top Chinese players Wang Yihan, Xin Wang and Li Xuerui will be better prepared to face the Indian in London. Pullela Gopi Chand, who knows what to expect from the Chinese players, has already worked on the drawing board to prepare Saina for the surprises. In her startling career, she had upset the top Chinese players many a times, only to see them return stronger. “They always have some surprise up their sleeves against Saina,” Gopi Chand, who has been Saina’s coach since 2003, told Mail Today.”Whenever Saina has beaten the top players, they always had a change of tactics in the next meeting, so we have to be prepared for that. They know that Saina is in top form and a big threat to their chances,” he said.The biggest win Saina achieved against the Chinese recently was over Li Xuerui in the final of the Indonesia Open. Li, who was fourth in the world ranking at the time of cutoff date, has arguably been the best player this year, considering she beat world No.1 and compatriot Yihan Wang three times. In Jakarta, Saina stopped Li’s march for her second win in five meetings.”Saina played a lot of rallies in that game and was brilliant at the net. It was a gritty performance,” said Gopi Chand. Against Wang, who too is an attacking player, Saina has lost five times though she stretched her on a couple of occasions. World No.2 Wang Xin also enjoys a 4-2 record against her. Saina, however, will not meet the Chinese before the semi-finals. Unlike on international tours, the competition will be played in two stages group and knock-out. There will be 16 groups of four players each and one player from each group will progress to the knock-out round where Saina is expected to face her first big challenge, against the likes of German Juliane Schenk, Korean Ji Hyun Sung and Denmarks Tine Baun. Challenges will be aplenty but Olympics is a platform where the young shuttler will have to show her famous grit and the hunger to win.advertisement
Bringing her signature sense of optimism, generosity and glamour to the table, Kate Hudson will join Michael Kors and Watch Hunger Stop to help build a world with zero hunger by raising awareness and funds for the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP).Kicking off in October 2015, the Golden Globe-winning and Academy Award-nominated actress’ first philanthropic role for Michael Kors will be helping to launch two limited-edition styles of the Bradshaw watch as part of this year’s Watch Hunger Stop campaign. Every sale of one of these special styles, named the Bradshaw 100, will enable 100 children in need to receive a nutritious meal through WFP’s School Meals program. The watches will be available exclusively in Michael Kors stores worldwide and on michaelkors.com in the U.S.For every sale of a watch from the Watch Hunger Stop Collection, Michael Kors will donate US $25 to WFP.“I’m proud to join Michael Kors in this global effort to end hunger,” says Kate Hudson. “As a mother, I can’t think of anything more important than raising a healthy and educated generation of children, and WFP’s School Meals Program is committed to exactly that. This is a cause that I’m eager to be a part of because I believe we can all make a real and significant difference.”And, the feeling is mutual. “I am so excited to have Kate Hudson join me in the fight to ensure that no child anywhere in the world goes to bed hungry,” says Michael Kors. “Not only does she have a unique star quality but she also brings an incredible amount of generosity and a can-do attitude to a cause that is extremely important to me personally. I’m grateful to work alongside her and WFP to make a real change.”Since launching in 2013, the Michael Kors Watch Hunger Stop campaign has already helped WFP deliver over 10 million meals to children in need.Source:Watch Hunger Stop
Kolkata: Police on Wednesday night arrested a Bangladeshi national and recovered from his possession 400 pieces of methamphetamine tablets commonly called as Yaba weighing around 40 grams.Acting on a tip off, the policemen raided a guest house in Collin Lane in the Park Street where the accused, Tapas Ahmed, was residing. The police said Ahmed, a resident of Hazaribagh in Dhaka, came to the guest house a couple of days ago. The police recovered the psychotropic substance generally smuggled from Burma. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataAccording to the police the value of seized drugs is around Rs 80,000. Police suspect that the accused used to sell the narcotics to boarders staying in the guest houses and hotels of Collin Lane, Marquis Street, Free School street area, including the foreigners. During the preliminary investigation, the police came to know that Ahmed used to get these substances from Burma and smuggled into the country via Bangladesh. Police also suspect that some of the employees of the hotels and guest houses are involved in the incident. The police are trying to identify them. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in statePolice said Ahmed has been staying in the country for quite sometime. He also failed to provide passport or any valid documents. These tablets were circulated among the college students and the inmates of various hostels and guest houses in various parts of the city. There is a demand of these tablets among the college students. Police are also investigating if the accused has been a part of any international drug peddling racket. A detailed probe has been initiated in this regard. A case was started by the Park Street police station and the accused has been booked under Section 22(b)/29 of the NDPS Act.
An index in Splunk is a storage pool for events, capped by size and time. By default, all events will go to the index specified by defaultDatabase, which is called main but lives in a directory called defaultdb. In this tutorial, we put focus to index structures, need of multiple indexes, how to size an index and how to manage multiple indexes in a Splunk environment. This article is an excerpt from a book written by James D. Miller titled Implementing Splunk 7 – Third Edition. Directory structure of an index Each index occupies a set of directories on the disk. By default, these directories live in $SPLUNK_DB, which, by default, is located in $SPLUNK_HOME/var/lib/splunk. Look at the following stanza for the main index: [main] homePath = $SPLUNK_DB/defaultdb/db coldPath = $SPLUNK_DB/defaultdb/colddb thawedPath = $SPLUNK_DB/defaultdb/thaweddb maxHotIdleSecs = 86400 maxHotBuckets = 10 maxDataSize = auto_high_volume If our Splunk installation lives at /opt/splunk, the index main is rooted at the path /opt/splunk/var/lib/splunk/defaultdb. To change your storage location, either modify the value of SPLUNK_DB in $SPLUNK_HOME/etc/splunk-launch.conf or set absolute paths in indexes.conf. splunk-launch.conf cannot be controlled from an app, which means it is easy to forget when adding indexers. For this reason, and for legibility, I would recommend using absolute paths in indexes.conf. The homePath directories contain index-level metadata, hot buckets, and warm buckets. coldPath contains cold buckets, which are simply warm buckets that have aged out. See the upcoming sections The lifecycle of a bucket and Sizing an index for details. When to create more indexes There are several reasons for creating additional indexes. If your needs do not meet one of these requirements, there is no need to create more indexes. In fact, multiple indexes may actually hurt performance if a single query needs to open multiple indexes. Testing data If you do not have a test environment, you can use test indexes for staging new data. This then allows you to easily recover from mistakes by dropping the test index. Since Splunk will run on a desktop, it is probably best to test new configurations locally, if possible. Differing longevity It may be the case that you need more history for some source types than others. The classic example here is security logs, as compared to web access logs. You may need to keep security logs for a year or more, but need the web access logs for only a couple of weeks. If these two source types are left in the same index, security events will be stored in the same buckets as web access logs and will age out together. To split these events up, you need to perform the following steps: Create a new index called security, for instance Define different settings for the security index Update inputs.conf to use the new index for security source types For one year, you might make an indexes.conf setting such as this: [security] homePath = $SPLUNK_DB/security/db coldPath = $SPLUNK_DB/security/colddb thawedPath = $SPLUNK_DB/security/thaweddb #one year in seconds frozenTimePeriodInSecs = 31536000 For extra protection, you should also set maxTotalDataSizeMB, and possibly coldToFrozenDir. If you have multiple indexes that should age together, or if you will split homePath and coldPath across devices, you should use volumes. See the upcoming section, Using volumes to manage multiple indexes, for more information. Then, in inputs.conf, you simply need to add an index to the appropriate stanza as follows: [monitor:///path/to/security/logs/logins.log] sourcetype=logins index=security Differing permissions If some data should only be seen by a specific set of users, the most effective way to limit access is to place this data in a different index, and then limit access to that index by using a role. The steps to accomplish this are essentially as follows: Define the new index. Configure inputs.conf or transforms.conf to send these events to the new index. Ensure that the user role does not have access to the new index. Create a new role that has access to the new index. Add specific users to this new role. If you are using LDAP authentication, you will need to map the role to an LDAP group and add users to that LDAP group. To route very specific events to this new index, assuming you created an index called sensitive, you can create a transform as follows: [contains_password] REGEX = (?i)password[=:] DEST_KEY = _MetaData:Index FORMAT = sensitive You would then wire this transform to a particular sourcetype or source index in props.conf. Using more indexes to increase performance Placing different source types in different indexes can help increase performance if those source types are not queried together. The disks will spend less time seeking when accessing the source type in question. If you have access to multiple storage devices, placing indexes on different devices can help increase the performance even more by taking advantage of different hardware for different queries. Likewise, placing homePath and coldPath on different devices can help performance. However, if you regularly run queries that use multiple source types, splitting those source types across indexes may actually hurt performance. For example, let’s imagine you have two source types called web_access and web_error. We have the following line in web_access: 2012-10-19 12:53:20 code=500 session=abcdefg url=/path/to/app And we have the following line in web_error: 2012-10-19 12:53:20 session=abcdefg class=LoginClass If we want to combine these results, we could run a query like the following: (sourcetype=web_access code=500) OR sourcetype=web_error | transaction maxspan=2s session | top url class If web_access and web_error are stored in different indexes, this query will need to access twice as many buckets and will essentially take twice as long. The life cycle of a bucket An index is made up of buckets, which go through a specific life cycle. Each bucket contains events from a particular period of time. The stages of this lifecycle are hot, warm, cold, frozen, and thawed. The only practical difference between hot and other buckets is that a hot bucket is being written to, and has not necessarily been optimized. These stages live in different places on the disk and are controlled by different settings in indexes.conf: homePath contains as many hot buckets as the integer value of maxHotBuckets, and as many warm buckets as the integer value of maxWarmDBCount. When a hot bucket rolls, it becomes a warm bucket. When there are too many warm buckets, the oldest warm bucket becomes a cold bucket. Do not set maxHotBuckets too low. If your data is not parsing perfectly, dates that parse incorrectly will produce buckets with very large time spans. As more buckets are created, these buckets will overlap, which means all buckets will have to be queried every time, and performance will suffer dramatically. A value of five or more is safe. coldPath contains cold buckets, which are warm buckets that have rolled out of homePath once there are more warm buckets than the value of maxWarmDBCount. If coldPath is on the same device, only a move is required; otherwise, a copy is required. Once the values of frozenTimePeriodInSecs, maxTotalDataSizeMB, or maxVolumeDataSizeMB are reached, the oldest bucket will be frozen. By default, frozen means deleted. You can change this behavior by specifying either of the following: coldToFrozenDir: This lets you specify a location to move the buckets once they have aged out. The index files will be deleted, and only the compressed raw data will be kept. This essentially cuts the disk usage by half. This location is unmanaged, so it is up to you to watch your disk usage. coldToFrozenScript: This lets you specify a script to perform some action when the bucket is frozen. The script is handed the path to the bucket that is about to be frozen. thawedPath can contain buckets that have been restored. These buckets are not managed by Splunk and are not included in all time searches. To search these buckets, their time range must be included explicitly in your search. I have never actually used this directory. Search https://splunk.com for restore archived to learn the procedures. Sizing an index To estimate how much disk space is needed for an index, use the following formula: (gigabytes per day) * .5 * (days of retention desired) Likewise, to determine how many days you can store an index, the formula is essentially: (device size in gigabytes) / ( (gigabytes per day) * .5 ) The .5 represents a conservative compression ratio. The log data itself is usually compressed to 10 percent of its original size. The index files necessary to speed up search brings the size of a bucket closer to 50 percent of the original size, though it is usually smaller than this. If you plan to split your buckets across devices, the math gets more complicated unless you use volumes. Without using volumes, the math is as follows: homePath = (maxWarmDBCount + maxHotBuckets) * maxDataSize coldPath = maxTotalDataSizeMB – homePath For example, say we are given these settings: [myindex] homePath = /splunkdata_home/myindex/db coldPath = /splunkdata_cold/myindex/colddb thawedPath = /splunkdata_cold/myindex/thaweddb maxWarmDBCount = 50 maxHotBuckets = 6 maxDataSize = auto_high_volume #10GB on 64-bit systems maxTotalDataSizeMB = 2000000 Filling in the preceding formula, we get these values: homePath = (50 warm + 6 hot) * 10240 MB = 573440 MB coldPath = 2000000 MB – homePath = 1426560 MB If we use volumes, this gets simpler and we can simply set the volume sizes to our available space and let Splunk do the math. Using volumes to manage multiple indexes Volumes combine pools of storage across different indexes so that they age out together. Let’s make up a scenario where we have five indexes and three storage devices. The indexes are as follows: Name Data per day Retention required Storage needed web 50 GB no requirement ? security 1 GB 2 years 730 GB * 50 percent app 10 GB no requirement ? chat 2 GB 2 years 1,460 GB * 50 percent web_summary 1 GB 1 years 365 GB * 50 percent Now let’s say we have three storage devices to work with, mentioned in the following table: Name Size small_fast 500 GB big_fast 1,000 GB big_slow 5,000 GB We can create volumes based on the retention time needed. Security and chat share the same retention requirements, so we can place them in the same volumes. We want our hot buckets on our fast devices, so let’s start there with the following configuration: [volume:two_year_home] #security and chat home storage path = /small_fast/two_year_home maxVolumeDataSizeMB = 300000 [volume:one_year_home] #web_summary home storage path = /small_fast/one_year_home maxVolumeDataSizeMB = 150000 For the rest of the space needed by these indexes, we will create companion volume definitions on big_slow, as follows: [volume:two_year_cold] #security and chat cold storage path = /big_slow/two_year_cold maxVolumeDataSizeMB = 850000 #([security]+[chat])*1024 – 300000 [volume:one_year_cold] #web_summary cold storage path = /big_slow/one_year_cold maxVolumeDataSizeMB = 230000 #[web_summary]*1024 – 150000 Now for our remaining indexes, whose timeframe is not important, we will use big_fast and the remainder of big_slow, like so: [volume:large_home] #web and app home storage path = /big_fast/large_home maxVolumeDataSizeMB = 900000 #leaving 10% for pad [volume:large_cold] #web and app cold storage path = /big_slow/large_cold maxVolumeDataSizeMB = 3700000 #(big_slow – two_year_cold – one_year_cold)*.9 Given that the sum of large_home and large_cold is 4,600,000 MB, and a combined daily volume of web and app is 60,000 MB approximately, we should retain approximately 153 days of web and app logs with 50 percent compression. In reality, the number of days retained will probably be larger. With our volumes defined, we now have to reference them in our index definitions: [web] homePath = volume:large_home/web coldPath = volume:large_cold/web thawedPath = /big_slow/thawed/web [security] homePath = volume:two_year_home/security coldPath = volume:two_year_cold/security thawedPath = /big_slow/thawed/security coldToFrozenDir = /big_slow/frozen/security [app] homePath = volume:large_home/app coldPath = volume:large_cold/app thawedPath = /big_slow/thawed/app [chat] homePath = volume:two_year_home/chat coldPath = volume:two_year_cold/chat thawedPath = /big_slow/thawed/chat coldToFrozenDir = /big_slow/frozen/chat [web_summary] homePath = volume:one_year_home/web_summary coldPath = volume:one_year_cold/web_summary thawedPath = /big_slow/thawed/web_summary thawedPath cannot be defined using a volume and must be specified for Splunk to start. For extra protection, we specified coldToFrozenDir for the indexes’ security and chat. The buckets for these indexes will be copied to this directory before deletion, but it is up to us to make sure that the disk does not fill up. If we allow the disk to fill up, Splunk will stop indexing until space is made available. This is just one approach to using volumes. You could overlap in any way that makes sense to you, as long as you understand that the oldest bucket in a volume will be frozen first, no matter what index put the bucket in that volume. With this, we learned to operate multiple indexes and how we can get effective business intelligence out of the data without hurting system performance. If you found this tutorial useful, do check out the book Implementing Splunk 7 – Third Edition and start creating advanced Splunk dashboards. 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