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Though Epitopix is the first company to win conditional USDA approval, other groups are working on E coli vaccines for cattle. In February 2008, Bioniche, a Canadian company that developed Canada’s first E coli vaccine for cattle, said it received word from the USDA that it was in a good position to secure conditional licensure. A conditional license would allow Bioniche to sell the vaccine in the United States if at least one step in the manufacturing process takes place on US soil and the company doesn’t use a trademark name for the vaccine. “We had a decrease in cattle shedding E coli by 54% in our first study,” Thompson said in the press release. “However, we increased the amount of SRP exposure in the second field study and decreased the rate of shedding by 85%.” The large-pen studies involved 20 pens and more than 1,200 head of cattle. Thompson said researchers conducted a challenge study, a natural infection trial, and two large-pen field studies of the SRP E coli vaccine at commercial feedlots. He said the trials demonstrated that the vaccine decreased the number of cattle shedding the bacteria, the concentration of the bacteria that was shed, and the number of “super shedder” cattle. Feb 2, 2008, CIDRAP News story “E coli cattle vaccine nearing US approval” See also: Dan Thompson, associate professor of clinical sciences at Kansas State University, said in a March 27, 2008, press release from the university that foodborne pathogens use siderophore receptors and porin proteins to acquire iron. “Iron is to bacteria as oxygen is to humans. Without iron consumption, the bacteria suffocate and can’t grow or replicate,” he said, adding that the vaccine keeps the pathogen from taking up iron. The company will conduct more potency and efficacy studies to gain full approval for the vaccine, which was developed by the company’s scientists along with researchers from Kansas State University and West Texas A&M University. The vaccine uses “siderophore receptor and porin” (SRP) technology developed by Epitopix. Also, GeneThera, Inc., based in Wheat Ridge, Colo., said in November 2008 that it had signed an agreement to license and distribute an E coli vaccine developed at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, according to a previous report. A representative from the company said that the company would launch phase 2 clinical trials soon and take the vaccine to market as soon as possible. E coli O157:H7 doesn’t sicken cattle but is potentially fatal to humans. It produces a toxin that causes diarrhea, often bloody, but usually without fever. Though most patients with E coli O157:H7 infections recover in 5 to 10 days, 2% to 7% develop hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney failure. Epitopix announced the granting of the conditional license on Mar 5 at the Beef Industry Food Safety Council annual meeting in San Diego, according to a company press release. “It represents a significant breakthrough in the beef industry’s ongoing effort to reduce E coli O157,” said Jim Sandstrom, Epitopix’ general manager, in the press release. Nov 3, 2008, CIDRAP News story “Canada approves E coli vaccine for cattle” Because the pathogen doesn’t sicken cattle, it’s unclear how vigorously cattle producers will embrace the vaccine, some industry experts have said. Sandstrom told CIDRAP News that Epitopix has not yet set a price for a course of its vaccine. Bioniche has said its vaccine would likely cost less than $10 per head of cattle. Mar 27, 2008, K-State press release Sandstrom credited the USDA and the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association for supporting several public and private E coli preharvest and postharvest interventions. “We are confident that our E coli O157:H7 SRP vaccine will play an important role for beef producers and packers as they work together to implement E coli O157:H7 control efforts,” he said. Mar 11, 2009 (CIDRAP News) The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently granted a conditional license for the nation’s first Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine for cattle, allowing Epitopix LLC, a Willmar, Minn., company, to immediately offer the vaccine to the beef industry.
Anyone found violating the PSBB measures, such as individuals participating in public gatherings and offices of nonessential companies remaining open, will be punished to educate the public, Anies went on to say.Under the PSBB regulations, all workplaces, except those in essential sectors such as the financial, fuel, food, medicine, retail, water, communications and logistic sectors, must remain closed and implement work-from-home policies.Nonessential workplaces found operating during the PSBB period will be sealed up, while their business licenses will be revoked if they continue to violate the restrictions.“The provincial administration and the Industry Ministry are reviewing the businesses that previously received permits to continue operating during the PSBB period. If we find that they are not in an essential sector, [the administration] will ask the ministry to review their permits,” Anies said.Read also: Indonesia to evaluate partial lockdown as companies, factories continue business as usualThe Jakarta administration will continue to distribute social aid to around eligible 1.2 million families including packages of staple food, cloth masks and soap worth around Rp 150,000 (US$9.63).Anies added that the administration would update its data on the social aid beneficiaries, as many people were continuing to lose their jobs due to the crisis. The updated data and distribution map will be able to the public at corona.jakarta.go.id.Jakarta, the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak in the country, had recorded 3,383 cases with 301 fatalities and 322 recoveries as of Wednesday. Nationwide, 7,418 cases have been recorded with 635 fatalities.While the number of confirmed cases is continuing to increase, Anies said fewer bodies had been buried according to COVID-19 protocol following the implementation of PSBB measures. The Jakarta administration announced on Wednesday that the large-scale social restrictions (PSBB) will be extended until May 22 as the COVID-19 outbreak has yet to subside.Jakarta Governor Anies Baswedan made the decision to extend the restrictions – initially slated to end Thursday – for another 28 days after consulting with health experts and the Jakarta Health Agency.“The key to implementing PSBB measures is for all parties to be disciplined,” Anies said during a press briefing at City Hall on Wednesday. Topics : “If we are disciplined, stay at home and reduce our activities outside, Insya Allah [God willing] this outbreak will be overcome soon.”The governor also urged Muslims to conduct religious rituals during Ramadan, such as tarawih (evening prayers), at home with their families rather than in congregations. He also urged Jakartans not not to participate in the Idul Fitri mudik (exodus) in compliance with the government’s recent ban.Read also: Coronavirus outbreak may end in June with ‘mudik’ ban: IDIThis year, Ramadan will last from Friday until May 24.
Strikes from Yohan Cabaye and Loic Remy put impressive Newcastle in a commanding position, but Mike Williamson’s own goal in first-half injury time set up a more competitive second half. West Ham, buoyed by the arrival of Ravel Morrison, displayed greater fight and Carlton Cole should have scored the equaliser but also butchered the simplest of chances. Newcastle added their third four minutes into injury time when Cabaye curled a free-kick around the wall, off the left post and into the net. The result means West Ham slip back into the relegation zone while Newcastle have concluded their four-match losing run in all competitions. The Magpies in full flow were great to watch but they will face few more accommodating back fours than Razvan Rat, James Collins, Roger Johnson and Matt Taylor. Cabaye and Remy benefited from some woeful defending and had the Magpies been just a little more clinical, the contest would have been over by half-time. Injury-hit West Ham’s shortcomings in defence were exposed in the opening minutes when Cabaye threaded a terrific pass to Remy. The Frenchman outfoxed Johnson and Collins and having created enough room to take a shot, sent the ball narrowly wide of the left post. Andy Carroll squandered a glorious chance to decorate his Upton Park return with a crucial goal as Newcastle ended their three-match losing run in the Barclays Premier League with a 3-1 win. Carroll, back from a long-term foot injury, made his second appearance of the season as a 62nd-minute substitute and was guilty of an awful miss against his former side. With West Ham trailing 2-1 and the match finely poised, the England striker had the goal at his mercy after being teed up by Stewart Downing only to loft his attempt high over the crossbar. When Cabaye was given the opportunity to put Newcastle ahead in the 16th minute, he seized his chance. Yoan Gouffran darted infield and found Cabaye, who took two touches and passed the ball into the net with West Ham’s passive defence all but waving him through. It was turning into the Cabaye show as the French midfielder set up Moussa Sissoko with a long pass, which should have been buried, before shooting just wide himself. The half-hour mark saw West Ham’s first chance, but Downing stabbed the ball straight into the arms of Tim Krul. Any hope that Downing’s attempt might inspire the Hammers faded almost immediately as Newcastle capitalised on more shambolic defending to surge 2-0 ahead. Sissoko floated in a cross that should have been cleared with ease, but instead Remy was able to glide unmarked into the six-yard box and stab home. Remarkably given the run of play, West Ham pulled one back deep into first-half injury time and this time Newcastle’s defence was at fault. Rat provided the cross to Cole, who chested the ball down and muscled his way through two defenders, Williamson adjudged to have got the final touch as the ball found its way past Krul. The goal seemed only to be a momentary lapse in concentration as Cabaye tested Adrian early in the second half, but slowly West Ham began to display some stomach for the fight. A hint of complacency had crept into Newcastle’s play and it was now the Hammers who were driving forward. Cole should have rounded off Matt Taylor’s hard work by dispatching the equaliser but instead he blundered over a simple chance, steering the ball wide with the target at his mercy. Carroll’s first appearance of the season at Upton Park was greeted by a loud cheer, but when the stage beckoned for the England forward to deliver he skied the ball into the stands. Fittingly, it was the brilliant Cabaye who supplied Newcastle’s third goal in the 95th minute. Press Association