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Though Epitopix is the first company to win conditional USDA approval, other groups are working on E coli vaccines for cattle. In February 2008, Bioniche, a Canadian company that developed Canada’s first E coli vaccine for cattle, said it received word from the USDA that it was in a good position to secure conditional licensure. A conditional license would allow Bioniche to sell the vaccine in the United States if at least one step in the manufacturing process takes place on US soil and the company doesn’t use a trademark name for the vaccine. “We had a decrease in cattle shedding E coli by 54% in our first study,” Thompson said in the press release. “However, we increased the amount of SRP exposure in the second field study and decreased the rate of shedding by 85%.” The large-pen studies involved 20 pens and more than 1,200 head of cattle. Thompson said researchers conducted a challenge study, a natural infection trial, and two large-pen field studies of the SRP E coli vaccine at commercial feedlots. He said the trials demonstrated that the vaccine decreased the number of cattle shedding the bacteria, the concentration of the bacteria that was shed, and the number of “super shedder” cattle. Feb 2, 2008, CIDRAP News story “E coli cattle vaccine nearing US approval” See also: Dan Thompson, associate professor of clinical sciences at Kansas State University, said in a March 27, 2008, press release from the university that foodborne pathogens use siderophore receptors and porin proteins to acquire iron. “Iron is to bacteria as oxygen is to humans. Without iron consumption, the bacteria suffocate and can’t grow or replicate,” he said, adding that the vaccine keeps the pathogen from taking up iron. The company will conduct more potency and efficacy studies to gain full approval for the vaccine, which was developed by the company’s scientists along with researchers from Kansas State University and West Texas A&M University. The vaccine uses “siderophore receptor and porin” (SRP) technology developed by Epitopix. Also, GeneThera, Inc., based in Wheat Ridge, Colo., said in November 2008 that it had signed an agreement to license and distribute an E coli vaccine developed at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, according to a previous report. A representative from the company said that the company would launch phase 2 clinical trials soon and take the vaccine to market as soon as possible. E coli O157:H7 doesn’t sicken cattle but is potentially fatal to humans. It produces a toxin that causes diarrhea, often bloody, but usually without fever. Though most patients with E coli O157:H7 infections recover in 5 to 10 days, 2% to 7% develop hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney failure. Epitopix announced the granting of the conditional license on Mar 5 at the Beef Industry Food Safety Council annual meeting in San Diego, according to a company press release. “It represents a significant breakthrough in the beef industry’s ongoing effort to reduce E coli O157,” said Jim Sandstrom, Epitopix’ general manager, in the press release. Nov 3, 2008, CIDRAP News story “Canada approves E coli vaccine for cattle” Because the pathogen doesn’t sicken cattle, it’s unclear how vigorously cattle producers will embrace the vaccine, some industry experts have said. Sandstrom told CIDRAP News that Epitopix has not yet set a price for a course of its vaccine. Bioniche has said its vaccine would likely cost less than $10 per head of cattle. Mar 27, 2008, K-State press release Sandstrom credited the USDA and the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association for supporting several public and private E coli preharvest and postharvest interventions. “We are confident that our E coli O157:H7 SRP vaccine will play an important role for beef producers and packers as they work together to implement E coli O157:H7 control efforts,” he said. Mar 11, 2009 (CIDRAP News) The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently granted a conditional license for the nation’s first Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine for cattle, allowing Epitopix LLC, a Willmar, Minn., company, to immediately offer the vaccine to the beef industry.
Mourinho’s future is uncertain heading into the new season having spoken out negatively about his players during pre-season and admitting he’s not been able to sign some of his top targets.So far Fred, Diogo Dalot and Lee Grant are the only senior arrivals and currently their chances of reducing the 19-point gap between themselves and rivals Manchester City look slim and increase the possibility of his exit. How the Premier League table could change after the Boxing Day fixtures REVEALED Tottenham predicted XI to face Brighton with Mourinho expected to make big changes Tottenham v Brighton LIVE: talkSPORT commentary and team news for Boxing Day opener Former Real Madrid boss Zinedine Zidane will be first choice to replace Jose Mourinho at Manchester United. Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won REVEALED who plays? silverware gameday ALTERED How Arsenal could line up in Arteta’s first official game in charge – Ozil return? But an Old Trafford source has revealed Man United will have Real Madrid legend Zidane top of their wishlist should Mourinho depart, whatever the manner.The Frenchman has followed a stunning playing career with a outstanding start to managerial life, winning the Champions League three times during his two-and-a-half year spell in charge at the Bernabeu.And having left the Spanish side earlier this summer, Zidane would be available for nothing, which is a definite boon. 2 smart causal NEW ERA possible xi Every current Premier League club’s best kit from the past decade Latest Premier League News How Man United could line up for Newcastle clash – will Pogba start? possible standings Manchester United boss Jose Mourinho has behaved erratically during pre-season. Zinedine Zidane will be Manchester United’s first choice pick to replace Jose Mourinho as manager should he leave the club, according to The Sun.The Portuguese boss’ erratic behaviour during the Red Devils’ pre-season tour has official worried about whether he will see out the remaining two years on his contract. How Chelsea could line up against Southampton – what system will Lampard play? England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? 2