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Planetary scientists this week cautiously suggested the possible presence of an equatorial lake on Saturn’s moon Titan. You wouldn’t know that from the headlines.In Nature this week (486, 14 June 2012, pp. 237–239, doi:10.1038/nature11165) Griffith et al., announced the “Possible tropical lakes on Titan from observations of dark terrain” (italics added). “Possible” is the operative word; the discovery depends on interpretation of spectral signatures obtained by the Cassini orbiter flying by the giant moon of Saturn. Most lakes have been found in polar regions. This would be the first semi-permanent body of liquid methane found in “tropical” (e.g., equatorial, not “warm,” since Titan is -290 degrees Fahrenheit). Most of Titan’s mid-latitudes are covered with sand dunes made of icy grains coated with hydrocarbons.In short, if the scientists interpret the color bands correctly, within the margin of error, a dark oval patch about the size of Great Salt Lake might be a lake of liquid methane. But other options are possible from the data – for instance, it could be a mudflat, a rain puddle, or a patch of dry hydrocarbon-coated sand. Cautiously, the scientists could only state that the data are consistent with it being a liquid methane lake as the best explanation – but even that hypothesis raises new problems, because lakes in tropical regions on Titan are thought to be unstable due to prevailing winds that pile up grains into giant dunes. So if it is a lake, the scientists surmised that the methane would have to come from below, like groundwater in marshes or oases on Earth, instead of from the atmosphere. But they can’t tell (if it is a lake) how deep it is, or how long it has been there, other than to note it has been observed since 2004 (eight years).A lake – an oasis – a marsh – tropics – those suggestive words were all the news media needed to go nuts with visions of certainty. Here’s how it got reported:Live Science: “Giant Tropical Lake Found on Saturn Moon Titan” (Charles Q. Choi).PhysOrg: “Lake detected near equator of Saturn’s moon Titan.”New Scientist: “Titan’s tropical lake hints at hydrocarbon wells.”National Geographic: “Saturn Moon Has Tropical “Great Salt Lake,” Methane Marshes” (Andrew Fazekas). This one even had artwork.CNN: “A moon of Saturn may have ‘tropical’ lakes.”Nature News: “Tropical lakes on Saturn moon could expand options for life” (Maggie McKee)All but Live Science tied the report in with “building blocks of life,” but what they didn’t report is that even if this is a methane lake, it is a paltry pittance of one, compared to what scientists expected in the 1990s to find: a global ocean of liquid ethane and methane several kilometers deep. And only Live Science went into any detail about the problems with the lake hypothesis.The problem gets even worse. Nature‘s final paragraph pointed out that scientists are puzzled how any methane could still remain after the presumed 4.5 billion years of Titan’s existence, given that methane is destroyed rapidly:General circulation models demonstrate that long-lasting tropical lakes several metres deep must be replenished, depending on the ethane content, within a ten-thousand-year timescale. Taken together, tropical lakes and studies of Titan’s lakes suggest that, currently, subterranean liquid supplies methane to Titan’s surface and atmosphere. A supply of on average 6 × 10−4 kg m−2 yr−1 is needed to explain the composition of Titan’s atmosphere, because methane, the progenitor of the moon’s organic species, is destroyed in 10–100 million years through solar ultraviolet photolysis. More observations are needed to determine whether this 4.5-billion-year-old moon is undergoing a specific recent flourish of geological activity, because it is freezing and its orbit decaying.What that last sentence implies is that scientists are being forced by the evidence to consider special conditions – “a specific recent flourish of geological activity” – to account for the presence of methane on Titan at all. At most, the methane on this bizarre moon would all be gone in 100 million years, one fortieth the assumed age of Titan, unless it were constantly being supplied from somewhere. Underground reservoirs might provide a convenient (unobservable) hiding place for the stockpile, but that solution arouses geological puzzles about how deep the methane would need to be, how it would form, and how it could erupt onto the surface. Added to that are indications that since Titan is freezing and its orbit is decaying, there should be less geological activity, not more.Secular scientists are generally reluctant to invoke any “specific recent flourish” of activity occurring right at the time humans are around to observe it. Why now, and not throughout Titan’s lifetime? The contrast between scientific caution in the paper and media exuberance provides a case study in how science is communicated to the public.If reporters are this reckless with a non-biological story like methane on Titan, how careful do you think they are reporting Darwin fables?Enjoy Space.com‘s Titan picture show with its real, observable data from the historic Huygens landing (January 14, 2005), a welcome escape from hyped-up stories. (Visited 27 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Follow the Puck Tags:#Big Data#data security#Internet of Things#IoT#NIST#Vint Cerf Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Internet of Things Makes it Easier to Steal You… Related Posts IoT is taking the world by storm. With products that let us live out our “Back to the Future” dreams, sans the hoverboards and flying cars, it’s easy to get excited. IoT-related products, from smart watches to connected cars, make us feel like we are living in the future.See also: US DoJ fears big security holes in IoTBut the IoT space is still growing, and with that comes a host of security risks. Some products have not yet developed appropriate security measures, which can allow hackers to compromise smart devices — for example, someone could hack into a smart refrigerator, turn off the power and spoil all the food inside. While this particular outcome is relatively mild, IoT’s security issues pose real problems when applied to medical devices or autonomous cars — a security failure in those areas can result in a life-or-death situation for many people.Public data is essential in building and supporting innovation across fields, and data sets provided by various IoT products and devices are some of the most accurate and informative data sets available. And while the dissemination of public data should absolutely continue, there must be a more rigorous set of standards in determining what is public data. Traffic and climate data, for instance, are fairly innocuous, but it’s easy to see how revealing health or national security data could have tremendous repercussions.NIST sits down with VintThe National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, is working to establish proper security regulations for IoT companies, as well as determining a set of guidelines for what should constitute publicly available data. NIST’s work in the cybersecurity and IoT space will ensure that people’s private data stays private, thus brokering a mutual trust between corporations and consumers. Recently, NIST talked with Vint Cerf, widely regarded as a “Founding Father” of the Internet, about the new security problems cropping up with IoT and affiliate industries. The whole 16-minute conversation can be found here.IoT has a lot of security risks that cannot be ignored. But once the problems are fixed, smart devices will only serve to improve people’s lives and drive innovation further than even “Back to the Future” dreamed. Small Business Cybersecurity Threats and How to… Maya Rao
Rutgers fought valiantly against No. 4 Michigan State Saturday night, but in the end, the Spartans did just enough to emerge from Piscataway with a victory. It helped that the Scarlet Knights made a mind-blowing mistake in the game’s final minute, however.Facing a 3rd-and-10 from Michigan State’s 40-yard-line, Rutgers quarterback Chris Laviano, with his team trailing 31-24, took a sack with the game clock winding down. He then spiked the ball on fourth down – presumably because he was just trying to stop the clock. Instead, it ended Rutgers’ final drive.ICYMI: Here’s how the wild @MSU_Football at @RFootball game just ended. http://t.co/53KsFDAYu8— BIG 10.10 (@BigTenNetwork) October 11, 2015It’s unlikely that Rutgers would have scored on the game’s final play anyway. But you can imagine Rutgers fans aren’t thrilled with how things ended.
Video: Virginia’s Darius Thompson Banks In Buzzer Beater To Complete Amazing Comeback vs. Wake Forest
With 1:20 left in the game, Wake Forest led No. 11 Virginia 64-54 at home. Over those final 80 seconds, the Cavaliers scored 18 points, capped off by a wild buzzer-beating bank shot by Darius Thompson, to beat the Demon Deacons 72-71. Virginia wins!! https://t.co/9SYoM5JmBv— Will Ojanen (@WillsWorldMN) January 27, 2016FOR THE WIN! @dthomp15 finishes off an incredible comeback in Winston-Salem for @UVAMensHoops ! #WAHOOWA # pic.twitter.com/Pe2ZXsAxRW— VirginiaSportsTV (@VaSportsTV) January 27, 2016The game log is crazy.College basketball has been impossible to predict this season, and the ACC is no different. Current ACC standings: UNC D$:?62@/&,!3 BC— Mark Armstrong (@ArmstrongABC11) January 27, 2016March will be here very soon. We can’t wait.
AUBURN HILLS, MI – DECEMBER 23: Molly Qerim and Jalen Rose of ESPN watch the Golden State Warriors play the Golden State Warriors at the Palace of Auburn Hills on December 23, 2016 in Auburn Hills, Michigan. NOTE TO USER: User expressly acknowledges and agrees that, by downloading and or using this photograph, User is consenting to the terms and conditions of the Getty Images License Agreement. (Photo by Gregory Shamus/Getty Images)Ahead of tonight’s NBA Draft in Brooklyn, John Calipari is all over the ESPN airwaves this morning. He did a long spot on Mike & Mike earlier, and he is currently filling the seat left vacant by Skip Bayless on First Take opposite Stephen A. Smith. The episode got off to a rocky start, however, when he was accidentally introduced as “Coach K” by host Molly Qerim. Calipari’s comments about Mike Krzyzewski’s Duke recruiting pitch this off-season makes the gaffe even more awkward. Calipari joked about it and played it off well, and they’ve moved on to the standard inane Stephen A. Smith ramblings, but we’re sure Kentucky fans weren’t amused.MORE FROM COLLEGE SPUN:The 10 Most Aggressive Fan Bases In CFBIn Photos: Golfer Paige SpiranacESPN Makes Decision On Dick Vitale
ESPNWhich college football programs are in the best shape to maintain success moving forward? ESPN attempted to answer that question this week, using an interesting methodology. A panel of the network’s analysts – Heather Dinich, Brad Edwards, Travis Haney, Sharon Katz, Tom Luginbill, Ted Miller, Adam Rittenberg and Mark Schlabach – used five different metrics to answer the question.Their top 25 – which is based on coaching, current talent, recruiting, title path and program foundation – was released Tuesday afternoon. Alabama, unsurprisingly, came out on top.Future Power Rankings: Alabama reclaims the top spot https://t.co/mLaOh8znKZ— ESPN SEC (@ESPN_SEC) July 6, 2016Ohio State followed at No. 2. Here’s the rest of the top 10. If you want to see the full top 25, head over to ESPN.1. Alabama 2. Ohio State 3. Florida State 4. Clemson 5. Michigan 6. LSU 7. Stanford 8. Oklahoma 9. Notre Dame 10. Michigan StateDo you agree with the list? Or are they off base on a few of the programs?
Some of the most active companies traded Wednesday on the Toronto Stock Exchange:Toronto Stock Exchange (16,073.58, down 3.07 points)Aurora Cannabis Inc. (TSX:ACB). Health care. Up 35 cents, or 5.77 per cent, to $6.42 on 13.3 million shares.IC Potash Corp. (TSX:ICP). Agriculture. Down one cent, or 14.29 per cent, to six cents on 8.1 million shares.Canopy Growth Corp. (TSX:WEED). Health care. Up 99 cents, or 5.39 per cent, to $19.35 on 4.4 million shares.Silver Bull Resources Inc. (TSX:SVB). Miner. Up four cents, or 27.59 per cent, to 18.5 cents on 4.3 million shares.Baytex Energy Corp. (TSX:BTE). Oil and gas. Up 14 cents, or 3.66 per cent, to $3.96 on 4.1 million shares.Katanga Mining Ltd. (TSX:KAT). Miner. Down 11 cents, or 10.38 per cent, to 95 cents on 3.8 million shares.Companies reporting major news:Metro Inc. (TSX:MRU). Grocer. Down 52 cents, or 1.25 per cent, to $41.03 on 458,818 shares. Metro is looking to expand its online grocery offerings to Ontario next year as the food retailing industry ramps up e-commerce options for shoppers. The company already offers “click and collect” in seven stores and home delivery service in Greater Montreal, Quebec City and Gatineau, Que., covering 60 per cent of the population of Quebec, Metro CEO Eric La Fleche said Wednesday.
Thiruvananthapuram: The Lok Sabha polls should be fought on perennial issues like poverty and disease and not on a tragedy of one moment , says Congress leader Shashi Tharoor while accusing the BJP-led government of trying to turn the 2019 vote into a khaki election after the Pulwama attack. The momentum was with the Congress when the Pulwama tragedy struck on February 14, killing 40 CRPF soldiers, Tharoor said, hitting out at the government for trying to make the upcoming Lok Sabha polls a “national security based election . Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss bank a/c details “We were doing very well by all estimations and the momentum was with us when the Pulwama tragedy struck us. Thereafter, the government has tried to make this a khaki election, a national security-based election, Tharoor told PTI in an interview. They are trying to hype their nationalist message that they were trying to protect the nation at the time of danger which, to my mind and my party’s view, has not been the principle challenge facing the country,” said the former diplomat and author who is aiming for a hat trick from the Thiruvananthapuram Lok Sabha seat this time. Also Read – Tourists to be allowed in J&K from Thursday In his view, a daily terror of hunger, poverty and disease strikes the hearts of millions of India and the government must deal with that too. “I am not minimising national security, but I am saying that the election has to be fought on perennial issues and not on a tragedy of one moment. That tragedy will be dealt with, has been dealt with and should be dealt with. “But there is a daily tragedy, the daily terror of hunger, poverty, disease that is also a terror that strikes the hearts of millions of our fellow Indians and that too needs to be dealt with by the government,” he said. Agreeing that some surveys have suggested the BJP’s chances have improved after the terror strike, Tharoor said it was the job of his party to remind people of the real issues. According to the Thiruvananthapuram MP, there has been a dramatic change in the character of India under BJP rule. An estimated 97 per cent of all communal violent incidents relating to cow vigilantism have happened in last four years, Tharoor said. And those are figures issued by the Home Ministry of Rajnath Singh. Not by Congress, not by any NGO. These are government figures. These are very serious crises,” he said. Lashing out at Prime Minister Narendra Modi, he said “triumphant majoritarianism celebrates violence” and the “prime minister stays silent”. So the condoning of this kind of thing is a deep assault on the very foundations of our democracy,” the former Union minister said. He said there are attempts by the centre to undermine the Constitutional arrangement that India was a country for all religions. “That’s being undermined in the ruling party’s language and rhetoric and is also undermined by steps like the citizenship amendment Bill which will allow every citizen of a neighbouring country except Muslims to settle here. That kind of bigotry was never part of Indian nationhood,” he said. Tharoor also expressed the hope that the people of India will vote out the BJP as the party doesn’t deserve a second chance. Addressing the issue of farmer distress, he said, “Sadly, more farmers are committing suicide than there are victims of terrorism in India. I am not saying we should minimise… we should also keep our country safe, but we want the people to address the existing real problems which includes major levels of agrarian distress. For the first time in history, we have eight farmer suicides in Kerala.” The former UN diplomat also mocked the claims of the BJP government over job creation and said the saffron party was only interested in keeping its own job in Delhi. The Congress wants every person in India to have a job, he said. Due to the failed employment policies of the BJP government, skill development has not taken off effectively in the last five “wasted” years, Tharoor said, alleging that the exports and manufacturing sectors had taken a beating. “Thanks to demonetisation, not only the GDP growth got hit of 2 per cent, but small and micro enterprises have shut down across the country. Asked whether the Congress was ready to take on the BJP, he said it was “absolutely” ready. Common people, the Congress leader said, were suffering under NDA rule. An LPG cooking gas cylinder, which cost Rs 390 under the UPA regime, was priced Rs 975 under the BJP government for no good reason, he said. Excise duties for petrol have gone up to Rs 19.48 under BJP rule even when the world prices are dropping, he added.
London: Arsenal moved into the Premier League top four, but made hard work of seeing off 10-man Watford 1-0 thanks to Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang’s fortunate early opener on Monday. Aubameyang profited from an error by Watford goalkeeper Ben Foster as he blasted an attempted clearance in off the Gabon international. Watford captain Troy Deeney was then shown a straight red card after just 11 minutes, but the Gunners failed to make the most of their man advantage and were fortunate as the hosts twice hit the woodwork. Also Read – Puducherry on top after 8-wkt win over ChandigarhHowever, Unai Emery’s men held out for a first clean sheet away from home in the Premier League this season to move ahead of Chelsea on goal difference into fourth. “We didn’t control the match like I wanted,” admitted Emery. “The team was anxious because they could (have) taken some moment. The most important for us is to score the second goal, which we didn’t do.” Arsenal also edge to within a point of north London rivals Tottenham and two clear of Manchester United in the four-way battle for the two remaining Champions League places behind Liverpool and Manchester City. Also Read – Vijender’s next fight on Nov 22, opponent to be announced laterFA Cup finalists Watford were already shorn of the man who helped book their place at Wembley against Manchester City next month as Gerard Deulofeu missed out through injury and Javi Gracia’s side did themselves little favours early on. Firstly, Foster dallied as Aubameyang closed in to concede a comical opener. “I’ve said sorry to the lads,” said Foster. “I have tried to drag it on to my left and pass it out but before I knew it he (Aubameyang) was bloody on me. “In hindsight, you have to get rid as quick as you can, even if it goes into row Z. “I am definitely not a modern goalie. They can’t score from row Z.” And within seconds, Deeney was punished for what the referee saw as an elbow into the face of Lucas Torreira. “If it is a foul I have a doubt, maybe a yellow card but (a) red card, I don’t understand why the referee did it,” argued Watford boss Javi Gracia. However, the 10 men were still causing problems to a defensively vulnerable Arsenal at the other end. Craig Cathcart’s shot was turned onto the post by Bernd Leno and the German goalkeeper was also a full stretch to turn an Etienne Capoue free-kick behind. Emery introduced Mesut Ozil at half-time in an attempt to improve Arsenal’s final ball with so much space to counter-attack into, but to little avail. Alex Iwobi looked to have provided the perfect cross to pick out Henrikh Mkhitaryan, but Foster made amends for his earlier error by spreading himself to make a brilliant save from the Armenian. Arsenal’s terrible away record is why they face such a tight battle to secure Champions League football next season. And they could have thrown just a second away league win since November away as Adam Masina crashed a 25-yard strike off the crossbar before Andre Gray miscontrolled Daryl Janmaat’s pass when clean through on Leno. Gray was then denied by a last-ditch challenge from Ainsley Maitland-Niles after rounding Leno, but without the firepower of Deulofeu and Deeney, Watford’s brave effort fell just short.
The Delhi Temple of Shri Venkateswara Swamy Vari, popularly known as Tirupati Balaji will be observing the Annual Brahmotsav Festival from May 15-25, 2019.Spread across 1.2 acres, the Delhi Temple of Lord Tirupati Balaji is located in the heart of New Delhi near Birla Mandir. It is under the aegis of Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) and is a replica of the Temple situated at Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Brahmotsav, is the most important festival celebrated in Tirumala as it marks Lord Srinivasa’s self-manifestation day by Lord Brahma. The annual Brahmotsav is conducted with the same fervor at the Delhi temple as is done in Tirumala. Also Read – The Puja carnivalDuring the festival, the Utsav-murti (processional deity) of the presiding deity Lord Venkateswara (Tirupati Balaji), along with his consorts Padmavati Ammavaru (Mahalakshmi Maa) and Andal Ammavaru (Dharti Maa) is taken out on a procession on different Vahans on the streets around the Temple complex. The major highlights of the festival are Rath Yatra on different Vahans namely Pedda Sesha (seven-headed snake), Chinna Sesha (five-headed snake), Hamsa (swan), Muthya Pupandiri (pearl bower), Simha (lion), Kalpvriksha (wish-fulfing tree), Hanumantha (Hanuman), Sarvabupala (protector of universe), Garuda (eagle), Gaja (elephant), Surya Prabha (sun) and Chandra Prabha (moon). This year 10 vahans have been gifted by ardent devotees to the Delhi Temple of Lord Venkateswara each costing approximately Rs. 2 lacs. Also Read – Wave City brings special offers this NavratraSpecial Pujas such as Abhishek, Kalyan Utasv (Lord Balaji’s marriage), Havan, etc. Mahaprasad will be done daily. The world-famous Tirumala Laddoos will also be available for Rs.100 each. The festival will also feature cultural programmes and special stalls. Praveen Prakash (IAS), Resident Commissioner Government of Andhra Pradesh and President, LAC, TTD has requested all devotees residing in Delhi and NCR to come forward to join the festivities and support the Delhi Temple Brahmotsav with heart and soul. Devotees may contact the Delhi temple for extending any support and donation.